11.1. 子曰:“先进于礼乐,野人也;后进于礼乐,君子也。如用之,则吾从先进。”
The villagers, said the Master, performed ritual and music before townsfolk. So I would employ the villagers in practising ritual and music.

11.2. 子曰:“从我于陈、蔡者,皆不及门也。”
Those who followed me in the states of Chen and Cai when I was in difficulty, said the Master, are not with me now.

11.3. 德行:颜渊,闵子骞,冉伯牛,仲弓。言语:宰我,子贡。政事:冉有,季路。文学:子游,子夏。
Among them Yan Yuan, Min Zi Qian, Ran Bo Niu and Zhong Yong were distinguished in virtue; Zai Wo and Zi Gong in eloquence; Ran You and Zi Lu in talent; Zi You and. Zi Xia in letters.

11.4. 子曰:“回也非助我者也,于吾言无所不说。”
Yan Yuan, said the Master, was of little help to me. He was delighted in whatever I said.

11.5. 子曰:“孝哉闵子骞!人不间于其父母昆弟之言。”
Min Zi Qian was a good son, said the Master. None could disagree with his parents and brothers about their praise of him.

11.6. 南容三复白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。
Nan Rong recited the following verse again and again: A flaw in white jade found, Away it may be ground, A flaw in what you say, Its influence will stay. Confucius married his niece to Nan Rong.

11.7. 季康子问:“弟子孰为好学?”孔子对曰:“有颜回者好学,不幸短命死矣,今也则亡。”
Ji Kang Zi asked, "Which of your disciples are eager to acquire knowledge?" Confucius answered, "There was Yan Yuan who was eager to learn, but it was a pity that he died early. Now there is none like him."

11.8. 颜渊死,颜路请子之车以为之椁。子曰:“才不才,亦各言其子也。鲤也死,有棺而无椁。吾不徒行以为之椁。以吾从大夫后,不可徒行也。”
When Yan Yuan died, his father begged Confucius to sell his carriage in order to buy an outer coffin for Yan Yuan. The Master said, "Our sons may be gifted or ungifted. When my son died, he had a coffin without the outer one. I could not sell my carriage to buy an outer coffin for your son, because I could not go on foot to follow other officials who ride in their carriages."

11.9. 颜渊死,子曰:“噫!天丧予!天丧予!”
At Yan Yuan's death, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven has bereaved me, Heaven has bereaved me."

11.10. 颜渊死,子哭之恸。从者曰:”子恸矣!“曰:“有恸乎?非夫人之为恸而谁为?”
Deeply grieved at Yan Yuan's death, the Master wept bitterly. His follower said, "Master, you are too deeply grieved." The Master said, "Am I so deeply grieved? For whom should I be grieved if not for him?"

11.11. 颜渊死,门人欲厚葬之,子曰:“不可。”门人厚葬之,子曰:“回也视予犹父也,予不得视犹子也。非我也,夫二三子也!”
After Yan Yuan's death his fellow disciples would bury him reverently. The Master said that would not do. But the disciples still buried him reverently. The Master said, "O Yan Yuan who looked on me as his father! But I could not look on him as my son. It is not my fault. It is yours, my disciples."

11.12. 季路问事鬼神。子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”曰:“敢问死。”曰:“未知生,焉知死?”
When Zi Lu asked how to serve the spirits and the divinities, the Master said, "If you do not know how to serve the living, could you know how to serve the dead?" Then Zi Lu asked about death, the Master said, "How can you know about death if you do not know about life?"

11.13. 闵子侍侧,訚訚如也;子路,行行如也;冉有、子贡,侃侃如也。子乐。“若由也,不得其死然。”
Standing by the side of the Master, Min Zi Qian looked respectful, Zi Lu seemed energetic, Ran You and Zi Gong were mild and cheerful. The Master was pleased, but he said, "A man like Zi Lu could never die in his bed."

11.14. 鲁人为长府。闵子骞曰:“仍旧贯,如之何?何必改作?”子曰:“夫人不言,言必有中。”
The minister of Lu was to rebuild the Long Treasury. Min Zi Qian said, "Why not repair it? I see no need to replace the old by the new." The Master said, "Min Zi Qian seldom speaks, but when he does, he hits the point."

11.15. 子曰:“由之瑟奚为于丘之门?”门人不敬子路。子曰:“由也升堂矣,未入于室也。”
The Master did not like Zi Lu playing on lute at his door, so the disciples did not respect Zi Lu. The Master said, "Zi Lu has entered my hall but not my inner room."

11.16. 子贡问:“师与商也孰贤?”子曰:“师也过,商也不及。”曰:“然则师愈与?”子曰:“过犹不及。”
Zi Gong asked about Zi Zhang and Zi Xia, "Which of them is better?" The Master said, "Zi Zhang has overdone and Zi Xia underdone." Zi Gong asked, "Is Zi Zhang better?" The Master said, "To overdo is no better than to underdo."

11.17. 季氏富于周公,而求也为之聚敛而附益之。子曰:“非吾徒也。小子鸣鼓而攻之,可也。”
The lord of the Ji Family was richer than the Duke of Zhou, yet Ran You collected revenues for him and increased his wealth. The Master said, "Ran You is no follower of mine. Dear disciples, you may beat your drum and assail him."

11.18. 柴也愚,参也鲁,师也辟,由也喭。
"Gao Cai is simple; Zen Shen is dull; Zi Zhang is queer; Zi Lu is bold."

11.19. 子曰:“回也其庶乎,屡空。赐不受命,而货殖焉,亿则屡中。”
Yan Yuan, said the Master, is nearest to an ideal man, but he is often in want. Zi Gong does not obey the order, but he has enriched himself and often hit the mark in his calculation.

11.20. 子张问善人之道。子曰:“不践迹,亦不入于室。”
Zi Zhang asked how to learn from a good man. The Master said, "If you do not follow his trace, you cannot enter his room.

11.21. 子曰:“论笃是与,君子者乎?色庄者乎?”
One's solemnity, said the Master, may be taken for granted. But is he a cultured man or does he simply appear to be solemn as a cultured one?

11.22. 子路 问:“闻斯行诸?”子曰:“有父兄在,如之何其闻斯行之?”冉有 问:“闻斯行诸?”子曰:“闻斯行之。”公西华 曰:“由 也问‘闻斯行诸’,子曰‘有父兄在’;求 也问‘闻斯行诸’;子曰‘闻斯行之’。赤 也惑,敢问。”子曰:“求 也退,故进之;由 也兼人,故退之。”
When Zi Lu asked whether he should put into practice the principle he had heard, the Master said, "You should first consult your father and your elder brother." When Ran You asked the same question, the Master said, "You may put it into practice." When Gongxi Hua heard this, he said, "I do not understand why you gave different answers to the same question." The Master said, "Ran You is timid, so I encourage him; Zi Lu is rash, so I discourage him."

11.23. 子畏于匡,颜渊后。子曰:“吾以女为死矣。”曰:“子在,回何敢死?”
The Master was detained at Kuang and Yan Yuan did not come till the Master was released. The Master said, "I thought you were dead." Yan Yuan said, "How dare I die when you are alive?"

11.24. 季子然问:“仲由、冉求可谓大臣与?”子曰:“吾以子为异之问,曾由与求之问。所谓大臣者,以道事君,不可则止。今由与求也,可谓具臣矣。”曰:“然则从之者与?”子曰:“弑父与君,亦不从也。”
Ji Zi Ran asked whether Zi Lu and Ran Qiu could be called ministers. The Master said, "I thought you were talking about other officials than Zi Lu and Ran Qiu. What is a minister but one who serves his prince according to the principle and will resign if it is not followed? If so, they may be called qualified ministers." Ji Zi Ran said, "Will they always follow orders?" The Master said, "Not when they are told to murder their prince or father."

11.25. 子路使子羔为费宰,子曰:“贼夫人之子。”子路曰:“有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必读书然后为学。”子曰:“是故恶夫佞者。”
Zi Lu got Zi Gao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said, "That would do wrong to the people." Zi Lu said, "He might learn from the peasants and the altar. Why should he acquire knowledge only from books?" The Master said, "It is on this account that I do not like glib talkers."

11.26. 子路、曾皙、冉有、公西华侍坐,子曰:“以吾一日长乎尔,毋吾以也。居则曰‘不吾知也’如或知尔,则何以哉?”子路率尔而对曰:“千乘之国,摄乎大国之间,加之以师旅,因之以饥馑,由也为之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。”夫子哂之。“求,尔何如?”对曰:“方六七十,如五六十,求也为之,比及三年,可使足民。如其礼乐,以俟君子。”“赤!尔何如?”对曰:“非曰能之,愿学焉。宗庙之事,如会同,端章甫,愿为小相焉。”“点,尔何如?”鼓瑟希,铿尔,舍瑟而作,对曰:“异乎三子者之撰。”子曰:“何伤乎?亦各言其志也。”曰:“暮春者,春服既成,冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,风乎舞雩,咏而归。”夫子喟然叹曰:“吾与点也!”三子者出,曾皙后。曾皙曰:“夫三子者之言何如?”子曰:“亦各言其志也已矣。”曰:“夫子何哂由也?”曰:“为国以礼,其言不让,是故哂之。”“唯求则非邦也与?”“安见方六七十、如五六十而非邦也者?”“唯赤则非邦也与?”“宗庙会同,非诸侯而何?赤也为之小,孰能为之大?”
Zi Lu, Zeng Xi, Ran You and Gongxi Hua sitting in attendance, the Master said, "Never mind I am older than you. Do not say your abilities are not recognized. What if they were?" Zi Lu replied straightforwardly, "If I were entrusted with a state of a thousand chariots, though situated among bigger powers and invaded by hostile armies, and suffering from famine and draught, I would teach its people to be courageous and know what is right by the end of three years." The Master smiled at him and said to Ran You, "What about you?" Ran You said, "If I were entrusted with a state of sixty or seventy square leagues, I could give its people plenty to live on by the end of three years. As for ritual and music, I would leave them to cultured men." "What about you, Gongxi Hua?" Gongxi Hua said, "I do not think I am capable, but I would like to learn. In ceremonies at the ancestral temple and at the conference of princes, I would like to act as an assistant in black gown and hat," "What about you, Zeng Xi?" Zeng Xi, pausing as he was playing on his twanging lute, put it aside and said, "My answer is quite different from theirs." The Master said, "What matters? Just say what you would like to do." Then Zeng Xi said, "In late spring I would put on my newly made spring dress and go with five or six grown-ups and six or seven young men to purify ourselves in River Yi, enjoy the breeze at the Rain Altar and come back singing." The Master said with a sigh, "I would like to go with you." When the three disciples were out, Zeng Xi remained behind and asked, "What do you, dear Master, think of what my fellow disciples have just said?" The Master said, "They have said what they would like to do." Zeng Xi asked, "Why did you smile at what Zi Lu said?" The Master said, "A state should be governed in accordance with what is right. Zi Lu was not modest, so I smiled at him." "Did not Ran You talk about the governance of a country?" "Is a state of sixty or seventy square leagues not a country to be governed?" "Did not Gongxi Hua talk about the governance of a country?" "What are services at the ancestral temple and conferences of the princes if not performance of a country? If Gongxi Hua could only act as an assisstant, then who could be the master in ceremony?"