11.1. 子曰:“先進於禮樂,野人也;後進於禮樂,君子也。如用之,則吾從先進。”
The villagers, said the Master, performed ritual and music before townsfolk. So I would employ the villagers in practising ritual and music.

11.2. 子曰:“從我於陳、蔡者,皆不及門也。”
Those who followed me in the states of Chen and Cai when I was in difficulty, said the Master, are not with me now.

11.3. 德行:顏淵,閔子騫,冉伯牛,仲弓。 言語:宰我,子貢。 政事:冉有,季路。 文學:子遊,子夏。
Among them Yan Yuan, Min Zi Qian, Ran Bo Niu and Zhong Yong were distinguished in virtue; Zai Wo and Zi Gong in eloquence; Ran You and Zi Lu in talent; Zi You and. Zi Xia in letters.

11.4. 子曰:“回也非助我者也,於吾言無所不說。”
Yan Yuan, said the Master, was of little help to me. He was delighted in whatever I said.

11.5. 子曰:“孝哉閔子騫!人不間於其父母昆弟之言。”
Min Zi Qian was a good son, said the Master. None could disagree with his parents and brothers about their praise of him.

11.6. 南容三複白圭,孔子以其兄之子妻之。
Nan Rong recited the following verse again and again: A flaw in white jade found, Away it may be ground, A flaw in what you say, Its influence will stay. Confucius married his niece to Nan Rong.

11.7. 季康子問:“弟子孰為好學?”孔子對曰:“有顏回者好學,不幸短命死矣,今也則亡。”
Ji Kang Zi asked, "Which of your disciples are eager to acquire knowledge?" Confucius answered, "There was Yan Yuan who was eager to learn, but it was a pity that he died early. Now there is none like him."

11.8. 顏淵死,顏路請子之車以為之椁。 子曰:“才不才,亦各言其子也。鯉也死,有棺而無椁。吾不徒行以為之椁。以吾從大夫後,不可徒行也。”
When Yan Yuan died, his father begged Confucius to sell his carriage in order to buy an outer coffin for Yan Yuan. The Master said, "Our sons may be gifted or ungifted. When my son died, he had a coffin without the outer one. I could not sell my carriage to buy an outer coffin for your son, because I could not go on foot to follow other officials who ride in their carriages."

11.9. 顏淵死,子曰:“噫!天喪予!天喪予!”
At Yan Yuan's death, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven has bereaved me, Heaven has bereaved me."

11.10. 顏淵死,子哭之慟。 從者曰:”子慟矣! “曰:“有慟乎?非夫人之為慟而誰為?”
Deeply grieved at Yan Yuan's death, the Master wept bitterly. His follower said, "Master, you are too deeply grieved." The Master said, "Am I so deeply grieved? For whom should I be grieved if not for him?"

11.11. 顏淵死,門人欲厚葬之,子曰:“不可。”門人厚葬之,子曰:“回也視予猶父也,予不得視猶子也。非我也,夫二三子也!”
After Yan Yuan's death his fellow disciples would bury him reverently. The Master said that would not do. But the disciples still buried him reverently. The Master said, "O Yan Yuan who looked on me as his father! But I could not look on him as my son. It is not my fault. It is yours, my disciples."

11.12. 季路問事鬼神。 子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”曰:“敢問死。”曰:“未知生,焉知死?”
When Zi Lu asked how to serve the spirits and the divinities, the Master said, "If you do not know how to serve the living, could you know how to serve the dead?" Then Zi Lu asked about death, the Master said, "How can you know about death if you do not know about life?"

11.13. 閔子侍側,訚訚如也; 子路,行行如也; 冉有、子貢,侃侃如也。 子樂。 “若由也,不得其死然。”
Standing by the side of the Master, Min Zi Qian looked respectful, Zi Lu seemed energetic, Ran You and Zi Gong were mild and cheerful. The Master was pleased, but he said, "A man like Zi Lu could never die in his bed."

11.14. 魯人為長府。 閔子騫曰:“仍舊貫,如之何?何必改作?”子曰:“夫人不言,言必有中。”
The minister of Lu was to rebuild the Long Treasury. Min Zi Qian said, "Why not repair it? I see no need to replace the old by the new." The Master said, "Min Zi Qian seldom speaks, but when he does, he hits the point."

11.15. 子曰:“由之瑟奚為於丘之門?”門人不敬子路。 子曰:“由也升堂矣,未入於室也。”
The Master did not like Zi Lu playing on lute at his door, so the disciples did not respect Zi Lu. The Master said, "Zi Lu has entered my hall but not my inner room."

11.16. 子貢問:“師與商也孰賢?”子曰:“師也過,商也不及。”曰:“然則師愈與?”子曰:“過猶不及。”
Zi Gong asked about Zi Zhang and Zi Xia, "Which of them is better?" The Master said, "Zi Zhang has overdone and Zi Xia underdone." Zi Gong asked, "Is Zi Zhang better?" The Master said, "To overdo is no better than to underdo."

11.17. 季氏富於周公,而求也為之聚斂而附益之。 子曰:“非吾徒也。小子鳴鼓而攻之,可也。”
The lord of the Ji Family was richer than the Duke of Zhou, yet Ran You collected revenues for him and increased his wealth. The Master said, "Ran You is no follower of mine. Dear disciples, you may beat your drum and assail him."

11.18. 柴也愚,參也魯,師也辟,由也喭。
"Gao Cai is simple; Zen Shen is dull; Zi Zhang is queer; Zi Lu is bold."

11.19. 子曰:“回也其庶乎,屢空。賜不受命,而貨殖焉,億則屢中。”
Yan Yuan, said the Master, is nearest to an ideal man, but he is often in want. Zi Gong does not obey the order, but he has enriched himself and often hit the mark in his calculation.

11.20. 子張問善人之道。 子曰:“不踐迹,亦不入於室。”
Zi Zhang asked how to learn from a good man. The Master said, "If you do not follow his trace, you cannot enter his room.

11.21. 子曰:“論篤是與,君子者乎?色莊者乎?”
One's solemnity, said the Master, may be taken for granted. But is he a cultured man or does he simply appear to be solemn as a cultured one?

11.22. 子路問:“聞斯行諸?”子曰:“有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之?”冉有問:“聞斯行諸?”子曰:“聞斯行之。”公西華曰:“由也問‘聞斯行諸’,子曰‘有父兄在’;求也問‘聞斯行諸’;子曰‘聞斯行之’。赤也惑,敢問。”子曰:“求也退,故進之;由也兼人,故退之。”
When Zi Lu asked whether he should put into practice the principle he had heard, the Master said, "You should first consult your father and your elder brother." When Ran You asked the same question, the Master said, "You may put it into practice." When Gongxi Hua heard this, he said, "I do not understand why you gave different answers to the same question." The Master said, "Ran You is timid, so I encourage him; Zi Lu is rash, so I discourage him."

11.23. 子畏於匡,顏淵後。 子曰:“吾以女為死矣。”曰:“子在,回何敢死?”
The Master was detained at Kuang and Yan Yuan did not come till the Master was released. The Master said, "I thought you were dead." Yan Yuan said, "How dare I die when you are alive?"

11.24. 季子然問:“仲由、冉求可謂大臣與?”子曰:“吾以子為异之問,曾由與求之問。所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止。今由與求也,可謂具臣矣。”曰:“然則從之者與?”子曰:“弑父與君,亦不從也。”
Ji Zi Ran asked whether Zi Lu and Ran Qiu could be called ministers. The Master said, "I thought you were talking about other officials than Zi Lu and Ran Qiu. What is a minister but one who serves his prince according to the principle and will resign if it is not followed? If so, they may be called qualified ministers." Ji Zi Ran said, "Will they always follow orders?" The Master said, "Not when they are told to murder their prince or father."

11.25. 子路使子羔為費宰,子曰:“賊夫人之子。”子路曰:“有民人焉,有社稷焉,何必讀書然後為學。”子曰:“是故惡夫佞者。”
Zi Lu got Zi Gao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said, "That would do wrong to the people." Zi Lu said, "He might learn from the peasants and the altar. Why should he acquire knowledge only from books?" The Master said, "It is on this account that I do not like glib talkers."

11.26. 子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華侍坐,子曰:“以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也。居則曰‘不吾知也’如或知爾,則何以哉?”子路率爾而對曰:“千乘之國,攝乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉,由也為之,比及三年,可使有勇,且知方也。”夫子哂之。“求,爾何如?”對曰:“方六七十,如五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民。如其禮樂,以俟君子。”“赤!爾何如?”對曰:“非曰能之,願學焉。宗廟之事,如會同,端章甫,願為小相焉。”“點,爾何如?”鼓瑟希,鏗爾,舍瑟而作,對曰:“异乎三子者之撰。”子曰:“何傷乎?亦各言其志也。”曰:“暮春者,春服既成,冠者五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂,風乎舞雩,咏而歸。”夫子喟然歎曰:“吾與點也!”三子者出,曾皙後。曾皙曰:“夫三子者之言何如?”子曰:“亦各言其志也已矣。”曰:“夫子何哂由也?”曰:“為國以禮,其言不讓,是故哂之。”“唯求則非邦也與?”“安見方六七十、如五六十而非邦也者?”“唯赤則非邦也與?”“宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大?”
Zi Lu, Zeng Xi, Ran You and Gongxi Hua sitting in attendance, the Master said, "Never mind I am older than you. Do not say your abilities are not recognized. What if they were?" Zi Lu replied straightforwardly, "If I were entrusted with a state of a thousand chariots, though situated among bigger powers and invaded by hostile armies, and suffering from famine and draught, I would teach its people to be courageous and know what is right by the end of three years." The Master smiled at him and said to Ran You, "What about you?" Ran You said, "If I were entrusted with a state of sixty or seventy square leagues, I could give its people plenty to live on by the end of three years. As for ritual and music, I would leave them to cultured men." "What about you, Gongxi Hua?" Gongxi Hua said, "I do not think I am capable, but I would like to learn. In ceremonies at the ancestral temple and at the conference of princes, I would like to act as an assistant in black gown and hat," "What about you, Zeng Xi?" Zeng Xi, pausing as he was playing on his twanging lute, put it aside and said, "My answer is quite different from theirs." The Master said, "What matters? Just say what you would like to do." Then Zeng Xi said, "In late spring I would put on my newly made spring dress and go with five or six grown-ups and six or seven young men to purify ourselves in River Yi, enjoy the breeze at the Rain Altar and come back singing." The Master said with a sigh, "I would like to go with you." When the three disciples were out, Zeng Xi remained behind and asked, "What do you, dear Master, think of what my fellow disciples have just said?" The Master said, "They have said what they would like to do." Zeng Xi asked, "Why did you smile at what Zi Lu said?" The Master said, "A state should be governed in accordance with what is right. Zi Lu was not modest, so I smiled at him." "Did not Ran You talk about the governance of a country?" "Is a state of sixty or seventy square leagues not a country to be governed?" "Did not Gongxi Hua talk about the governance of a country?" "What are services at the ancestral temple and conferences of the princes if not performance of a country? If Gongxi Hua could only act as an assisstant, then who could be the master in ceremony?"